If you do not have any sperm in your ejaculate, it may still be possible to find sperm elsewhere.
Sperm are made in the testes and may have difficulties being released, for example if there is an obstruction. Alternatively, sperm production may be so low that none are found in the ejaculate.
In both these cases, it may be possible to find sperm by looking for them directly from the testes using a surgical procedure. In some cases, sperm are pushed backwards into the bladder at ejaculation, resulting in retrograde ejaculation. This results in either no ejaculate or a very low ejaculate volume.
Sperm can be taken directly from the bladder and if required it can be used for insemination of your partner. If you are unable to ejaculate, then penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) may help. Alternatively, if you have nerve damage or spinal cord injury that prevents you from ejaculating, an electroejaculation procedure can be used effectively to obtain sperm.This technique may also be helpful if you are unable to ejaculate for other reasons.